The RS485 BUS interface was developed for extremely reliable serial data transmission over long distances. The cables of this industrial bus interface operate in push-pull mode. As such, only two cables are required and these are controlled in half-duplex mode.
The advantage of the two-wire technology lies mainly in its multimaster capability. Any node can in principle exchange data with any other node. This RS485 bus is designed as a two-wire system (with handshake or without). Using a specific protocol, the RS485 bus also allows multiple transmitters and receivers to be connected (up to 32).
Since multiple transmitters have to share a common line, a protocol needs to be used to ensure that only one data transmitter is active at any given time. All other transmitters must be in high-impedance status at this time. The RS485 standard only defines the electrical specifications for differential receivers and transmitters in digital bus systems.
However, the ISO standard 8482 standardizes the cable topology and also stipulates a maximum cable length of 500m. Due to long transmission distances, a large potential difference can occur between the ground of the data transmitter and the receiver.
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